Earpads

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published: July-09-2021

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Ear-pads or ear-cushions are an important part of the headphone. They are consumables (in most cases) and wear. Pads can be on-ear and over-ear. Headband padding is often made of the same material as the ear pads and is only about the wearing comfort. Pads come in different sizes, shapes and materials.

Most pads are replaceable. The more reputable brands often continue to offer replacement pads long after the model discontinued.
Unpopular models, the ones that did not sell well, may well be exempt. Some pads are really easy to replace others take more effort. In rare cases the pads are glued (but still replaceable).

Often special mounting rings or constructions are used requiring rotating the pads or pulling on certain places. Luckily there is something like the internet and it is filled with videos or tutorials how to replace pads.

There also are after market pads for most popular models. Brands like Brainwavz, Dekoni, Vesper Audio, Geekria and lots of Chinese replacement pads offered via multiple platforms can offer pads for most headphones or at least pads that will fit nicely.

One would think pads are only related to comfort and while that is perhaps the most important aspect, however, pads also a very important to the sound signature of the headphone. It could even be said to be just as important as the driver itself.

Pads exist in all kinds of shapes and sizes. This is dictated by the cups size and shape as well as the needed height. The height of the pads and whether or not they are angled or, when large in circumference, are ‘human head shaped’ also determines comfort, seal and sound signature.

Pads consist of a cover material, foam and mounting ‘construction’. All 3 of these aspects can differ substantially.

cover materials

  • none (in case of all foam pads)
  • Cloth
  • pleather
  • Velour, Velvet, microsuede, microfibre
  • Leather, alcantara, chamois (suede)
  • Hybrid
  • Silicone

The used materials all have certain acoustic properties and differ in comfort and longevity.

Foam pads are often used for on-ears but sometimes even for over-ears (see Grado Bowl pads on the right) and make direct contact with the pinnae. They can feel warm but usually aren’t getting ‘sweaty’. Foam does decay over time. It can soften, become ‘gummy’ or simply crumble and fall apart and can even become a tar like substance.
These pads (or even foam discs inside headphones) may need to be changed over time. Could be within a short time period but some foam can last for over a decade.

Cloth covered pads are not very common. Most are pleather or velour. Cloth covered pads usually work well in warmer climates and the cover material itself (the cloth) usually can be cleaned and outlasts the foam inside. Usually quite comfortable to wear and does not become sweaty or sticky. The Final D8000 on the right is an example but also the AKG K500 has cloth pads

Pleather is a cloth material covered with a thin, often leather-like, material like PVC, vinyl or silicone alike material. Some of these pads, certainly when new, can be as good as indistinguishable from real leather.
The PVC or vinyl material can be very thin and soft or thicker and stiffer and anything in between. Some pleather pads can last for many years and still look O.K. after much usage. The very thin material often starts to flake (peel off) rather sooner than later and looks terrible after a short while already. The vinyl types usually last a bit longer but are less supple and often start to crack after a lot of usage.
Comfort can be anything between high and poor. Also these pads can become ‘sticky’ and ‘sweaty’ when worn for longer periods. Usually not so comfortable in hot weather.

Velour or Velvet pads also are cloth covered with a bunch of very short and soft ‘hairs’ and generally are soft to the touch. In general they feel less ‘sweaty’ or ‘hot’ than pleather. Acoustic properties can differ slightly to substantially from (p)leather pads. Some of these pads may feel ‘prickly’ on first usage. Mostly this becomes better over time.
The difference between velvet and velour(s) is that velvet consists of small ‘loops’ and velours are made the same way but the loops are ‘cut’ and thus are like hairs. Velours comes in 2 different types. One where the hairs are upright where in the other variant the hairs are under an angle.
A downside is that these pads are hair and dust magnets.
Velour material is a bit similar to microsuede and microfibre but has a different feel. Microsuede is a form of microfibre and is also synthetic but feels more like suede leather.

Leather pads can be made of various types of real leather. Luxury leathers like alcantara, sheepskin and chamois (suede) feel different (softer) than ‘normal’ leather types. The thickness of the material determines how compliant (soft) it feels. The thinner the softer but also tears more easily around stitchings. Usually, especially when new, one can differentiate leather from pleather by its smell.
Leather feels less ‘hot’ and is less sweaty/sticky for a bit longer than pleather.
Leather in general lasts longer than pleather but can dis-colour and may take on a shape depending on how it is stored/worn.
Leather usually is less ‘sweaty’ and ‘sticky’ than pleather.  Acoustic properties can be changed by punching small holes in the leather. This is called fenestration.

Hybrid pads are a combination of 2 (or more) materials like (p)leather and velours/cloth/microsuede and combines acoustic and comfort properties of he used materials. Often a cloth-like pleasant to the touch material is used against the skin and (p)leather or even fenestrated leather is used on the inner and outer ‘walls’ of the pads to obtain a certain look or acoustical properties.
In general these pads are a bit more expensive but are very comfortable and look really nice. On the right a Brainwavz pad.

A much less used material is Silicone. This material can hold its shape without the need of having foam (which deteriorates). Can easily be cleaned and feels ‘cold’ to the touch yet soft. It has different acoustic properties from other materials as well. Downside is the material is very sweaty and sticky. The material can tear easily when it is nicked somewhere.

Filling material.

Pads can have different materials inside. Most used is foam but there are also gel-pads.
There are regular foam pads and memory foam pads. Both types exist in various densities ranging from soft to firm.
Memory-foam pads differ in the fact that they easily conform to facial contours and do this easier when warmed up slightly. These pads are more comfortable. To check whether or not the filling is regular foam or memory foam one just compresses the pad with a finger and let it go quickly after compressing it for a few seconds. When it goes back into the original shape instantly it is normal foam. When it comes up more or less slowly it is memory-foam.
Gel pads feel a bit cooler to the touch as it conducts warmth a bit better. it feels a bit different when compressing it too. Closer to memory foam but doesn’t come up again as fast. It is the same materials as used in gel bike saddles. A downside is that when the pads are punctured the stuff oozes out slowly.
The softer the material the better the seal could be but may also decay sooner. The stiffer the pads they will last longer and the tonality of the headphone will change the least over time but getting a good seal may be more difficult.
For open headphones a perfect seal often is not really needed but it is essential for most closed headphones.

seal

Seal is important to get proper bass extension. With open headphones a perfect seal often is not essential. For closed headphones it is essential.
The pads are very important to get a good seal. Their shape, size, thickness and softness/compliance, clamping force are the most important aspects for pads to ensure a good seal.

A good seal can only be achieved when the pads are making good contact with the skin all around the ears. Things like glasses, especially when the arms are not flush against the skin at the point they stick out from under the pads and hairs  under the pads can create a bad seal. This usually results in poor bass extension and sometimes to a honky sound.
Glasses flush with the skin may not be a problem. In any case this is more of an issue for closed headphones than open headphones.
Below an example of a closed headphone (K371) with its seal broken in various degrees.

Breaking the seal lowers the bass response and increases the 350Hz region (in this case). A lifted area in that area gives a cuppy/muddy sound.

For most open headphones this is much less of a problem as shown below (Fidelio X2HR)

Maintenance

Depending on the colour and type of materials some pads may need some cleaning. Leather pads can be cleaned with light soapy water. Also vinegar or olive oil (or a mixture of them) can be used on shiny leather. Special leather conditioner stuff exists which keeps the leather as new.
This may prevent ‘cracking’ of leather.
Pleather pads can be cleaned with a mild soapy water.
Velour and cloth pads can be washed in a mildly soaped hand-wash but they hold water for quite a long time even when squeezed out. I would not put them in a dryer nor put them on a heater.
When velours pads have lots of hairs on them you can try a sticky hair removal roller.

wear

Pleather can flake or crack. Velour can be come dirty and loose hairs. leather can crack and discolour. The part that will wear the most however is the foam inside. The decay of the internal foam is highly dependent on the type of foam. Some foam starts to compress or crumble quite quickly (see example on the right). This could even be in a year or so depending on how often it is used, sweat, temperature, humidity, clamping force etc. Other foams and especially gels may last much longer and not compress as much.
Pads that wear (break-in) over time change the tonality of the headphone. More on this aspect further down below. That influence can be substantial. I would even dare to state that people thinking/hearing/believing that the drivers (and some even think cables) are the items that need to be burned-in mistake this for the pads flattening over time or are simply getting used to the sound signature.

How long pads last will depend on:

  • Clamping force
  • Humidity
  • hours of usage
  • proper cleaning
  • used foam type (or gel or whatever is in there)
  • used cover material (thickness and type of material) in case the pads are not all foam.
  • body fluids reacting with the pad material
  • start ‘thickness’ of the pad material
  • temperature
  • How far ears stick outwards and one finds touching the pinna a nuisance.
  • How the headphones are stored (fuming of plastics or hardboard etc)
  • smoking or non smoking environment

New Sennheiser pads (HD580, HD58X, HD600, HD650, HD6XX, HD660S)

As of medio 2021 Sennheiser is sourcing their pads from another (I assume much cheaper) supplier. Sennheiser mentioned there is very little difference in sound and differences within the entire audible range will be smaller than 1dB. Also the stiffness is increased ensuring the sound stays pristine as long as possible.

These pads that were mounted on the latest Drop HD6XX (medio 2021) these pads are indeed the newer type pads.
pads rear view

The easiest indication is by looking at the rear side of the pads. The older ones (pre-2021) have a matte black plastic part (on the left) where the new version has clear (translucent) plastic on top of black plastic (picture on the right).
The front side is clearly different too. Below the front side and some dimensions.pad dimensions
The original pads had a thinner foam on the side where it touches the head. It is softer in that area ensuring a good seal as little force is needed to follow contours of the area around the ear.
The new pads have a round shape and indeed require more clamping force to reach the same amount of foam compression. The new pads thus indeed are somewhat stiffer. I hope the foam quality is improved as well as the lifespan of foam on these pads and in the headband padding is notoriously poor.

Below measurements of the HD650 (black screen) without the front foam for this test for easier pad swapping between fresh ‘old’ pads (pre 2021) and the new pads. Acoustic smoothing has been applied. The vertical scale is in 1dB divisions. Normally the plots on this website have 5dB divisions.new vs old pad smoothed
Indeed it seems the difference for the HD650 differs from the original one. The new pads have about 1.2dB less bass. Treble seems to be at a similar level but above 5kHz deviations are larger.
In a more normal scale the difference looks like the plot below. (no smoothing)old vs new pad normal view

Below a similar measurement but for a (modified) HD58X without smoothing.HD58X old vs new pad normal view

Below the same plot but with a 1dB/div scale and smoothed.new vs old pad HD58X smoothed.
Here too we see a difference below 1kHz of about 1dB max. The new pads have slightly less bass/warmth.
Also the treble, again, is not as smooth as the old pads and the 6kHz peak is a bit higher as well.

When pads age they become softer and the ear/driver distance changes. Below the new pads with standard pressure (no compression of the pads) and with increasing pressure applied to the pads. The brown trace is with the pads compressed to half that of new condition and some compression levels between these extremes.
new compressed
The older the pads become the more they compress the more bassier the headphone. When the pads are almost worn they show a similar (not the same) tonal balance as the pre-2021 pads when new.

I also had some worn (almost 30 years old) original HD650 pads lying around and a cheap Chinese knock-off bought from Ali-Express.
Below all 4 pads side by side.
4 pads front-2
and also from the back:
4 pads rear
The rear side of the Chinese replacement pad looks similar (but not the same) as that from the new pad. The space around the ears with the the Chinese pad is a lot smaller (35mm wide instead of 40mm). The foam inside is slightly stiffer even than the new Sennheiser pad.
Below the frequency response from these 4 pads on the HD650 (Black screen).4 pads compared HD650-B
And also on the (modified) HD58X.
4 pads compared HD58X (modif)

After the measurements were done some listening tests as well with various well made (and lesser recordings) without the foam in front of the driver. No EQ was applied. Listening test were done at comfortable loud listening levels.

HD650 (Black screen) with new original (2019) pads: Neutral sound lacking subbass extension and clear midrange, smooth not elevated detailed treble. There is no harshness when the recording is well made.

HD650 (Black screen) with new (2021) pads: Neutral sound lacking subbass extension and clear midrange, not elevated detailed treble. There is some very slight sharpness/coarseness even when the recording is well made compared to the original pads. The differences are small but noticeable.

HD650 (Black screen) with look-alike Chinese replacement pads: Slightly fuller but still neutral sound lacking subbass with a clear midrange but the higher frequencies are slightly less accentuated. A bit easier on the ears at higher listening levels and with energetic music but lacking air with well recorded music.
Drum hits etc. are slightly less ‘sharp’ but certainly not poorer quality.
Downside is the mechanical fit is poor and there is less room for the ears. Comfort is similar to the 2021 pads.
Note: the volume control is always the same during the measurements so the Chinese pads have about 2dB higher efficiency. Below the Chinese replacement pad versus the new HD650 pad.

new vs Chinese smoothed

For the HD58X the sonic consequences seem to be less. One needs to EQ the small peak around 5.5kHz anyway.

The sonic impact of the new pads seems to be limited to slightly less midbass hump which is welcome to some. The treble quality seems slightly ‘less’ with the new pads.
The Chinese replacement pads I have (ordered a few years ago) seem to have changed. They are difficult to fit and change the sound a bit more than the new pads.

I there was a choice I would buy the old pads and swap them a bit more often when the foam softens up too much. Alas, chances are when ordering original spare pads you will end up with the 2021 pads.

Below, for completeness,  the old worn HD650 pad versus a fresh <2021 pad.HD650 old vs worn pad
The tonal balance between an old worn original pad and a fresh (<2021) pad is substantial.

Pad swapping

Pad swapping is a popular thing to do amongst headphone owners that want to change the tonality or comfort.
Those willing to change the comfort only sometimes are surprised about the change in tonality.
Changing the driver-ear distance, changing the surface area where it touches the skin (seal), inner foam and the material on the inside of the pads and or holes at the driver side all can have a substantial effect on the tonal balance and even loudness of the sound.

After market pads mostly change the sound signature often even more than just pad degeneration. This also depends on the used headphone (type). Here is something I wrote 5 years ago about how different pads measure differently on different drivers. It clearly isn’t just pad thickness.
Pads are one of the tools that can be used to ‘tune’ a headphone. Even when on the outside they appear very similar they can vary substantially in acoustic properties. The Beyer DT770 pads and DT880/990 pads are difficult to tell apart just looking at the velours but differ substantially.
So are DT1990 and DT1770 pads in the same way.
Below the DT1990 that comes with 2 different pads. The Analytical and Balanced pads. The A pads turn the DT1990 more into a DT880 and the B pads turn it more into a DT990 alike signature.

DT1990 pads.png

Likewise the DT1770 sounds very different when slapping on different pads.

DT1770 pads.png

Those differences can be up to an extremely audible 10 to 15dB.

Stock DT1990 Balanced pads, Brainwavz perforated leather padsBrainwavz hybrid pads.blue = B-pad, L = velour, green = perforated leather 1990
These Brainwavz pads are close to the Beyerdynamic Balanced pads.
As a bonus you get more space for your ears, the treble peak is a bit lower with the perforated leather but leather is a bit sweatier at higher room temperatures. These pads have memory foam inside and feel comfortable.

Below the stock Balanced pads, Brainwavz leather padsBrainwavz hybrid pads.
1990 B-pad 2The hybrid pads (perforated leather inside, velour against the skin, pleather on the outside) differ a bit from 600Hz upwards but add comfort and a slightly different sound signature.
The  leather pads, aside from sounding boomy, also have a dip around 6kHz making the treble sound poor.

For HD800 for instance (not so for HD820) the pad thickness won’t really matter as the driver-ear distance hardly changes because the pads are very thin to begin with. It will more be a comfort issue for these phones.

HD 800 with original pads, imitation HD800 pads, thicker leather pads.

So you can use different pads (that mechanically fit) to change the sound of a headphone. This can be anything ranging from a total disaster through hardly any changes to a complete success. In general the choices made by reputable manufacturers are what the manufacturer was aiming for.
Not all headphones are intended for music enjoyment. Using those not meant for this may not always work out well. Might be solved with different pads.. might not be.

Changing pads sometimes can help with lowering peaks in the treble. Usually at the cost of other frequency (bands) though.
Should you want to change pads because of comfort issues or because someone said a headphone sounds MUCH better when pad A or B is used then you should realise that it is possible bass or mids are much more affected than the treble part is.
To show this below some plots of exactly the same driver (Beyerdynamic DT150) set at the exact same volume control position with various pads on it. DT150 pleather pads, DT100 velours pads, HM5 pleather pads, HM5 velours pads, Angled HM5 pleather pads, angled velours HM5 pads, HM5 hybrid pads (pleather, perforated pleather on the inside and velours on the ‘skin’ side)

all pads

As can be seen there certainly is an influence in the treble part (>4kHz) but bigger differences are found in lower parts of the frequency range.

Below some plots of the exact same driver (Fostex T50RP) with different pads as only variable. The vertical scale is 5dB/div, no smoothing applied.
pleather HM5, Velours HM5, velours SRH940, velours SRH1840pleather SHL9505 pad

T50RP various pads

Here too bigger differences can be found below 1kHz than above it.
Below the Superlux HD681 (with a passive notch filter used) with various pads.
The vertical scale is 2dB/div and the plots are 1/3 octave smoothed so small ‘wiggles’ don’t clutter the whole picture.
velours AKG K240 pads, pleather T50RP pads, pleather SRH840 pads, velours Superlux pads, original pleather Superlux pads, Chinese velours pads, velours SRH940 pads.

HD681 pads (with filter)

In some cases the differences between original brand velours and pleather pads can be VERY big, as in the Philips A5Pro below, official pleather pads, official velours pads

a5pro l stock vs velours

Sometimes the differences between original pads may be small as in the HD662-EVO shown below. original pleather pads, original velours pads. As can be seen hardly any difference in the treble part, only a few dB difference in the amount of bass.

pleather vs velour

So when changing pads to get rid of (nasty) treble you should be aware that, more often than not, you change other parts of the frequency range as well.

Using different pads may sometimes lead to improved sound quality but in other cases might screw up the frequency response / tonal balance.

Below the plots of several pads which screw up the frequency response of the HIFIMAN HE-350 considerably.
Pleather HD681-EVO pads, DT770 pads, HM5 pleather pads, HM5 hybrid pads, SRH840 pads. The pleather HIFIMAN pads act similar to the HM5 pleather pads.

not-suited-pads

As can be seen the treble peak is not affected much and all these pads will give it a massive ‘hollow/honky’ sound.
Below some pads that could be used with this headphone (HE-350).

suited-pads

HE350 pad, DT990 pad, HM5 velours pad, SRH1840 pad, Chinese K240 pad.
The velours HM5 pad is the most interesting one here as it increases the bass response and warms up the sound. Around 150Hz the level is about the same as the 5kHz treble peak. This effectively lowers the treble peak and warms up the sound. Because of this the sharp treble is less obvious and the sound is a bit more like the DT990.

pad wear

The foam in the pads has a limited lifespan. This depends on many factors but over time the foam becomes less firm and it takes a lot less force to get the same compression of the foam.
On the left a fresh set of HD650 pads, on the right a heavily used 20 year old HD650 pad both with 10N (1kg) of weight put on top of it.

The newer pads do not compress nearly as much as the older ones. One may think this only leads to a different comfort but this often is not the case. In a lot of cases the tonality (tonal balance/sound character) changes when the pads get ‘softer’ over time.
As this happens quite slowly over the years (some pads faster) one does get accustomed to the sound and believes the headphone is finally ‘burnt-in’. Only to find out when putting on some fresh pads the sound is very different (often clearer/brighter). Owners either didn’t realize it was the pads doing this or believe the new pads have different sound.

I took some headphones I have lying around (all with lots of hours on it already) and put these on my flatplate. Measured the pad thickness on the outside and then pressed them onto the rig using velcroband around the rig/headphone and compress the pads.
This is not a scientific study nor is this done on a HATS and the measurements are done without a pinna.

This makes a different situation from reality where your pinna is inside changing the air volume and masking of rear sound.
It should be noted that when the pads are completely compressed (in most cases) the pinnae are bent so this too will have a different effect than what is shown here.
Especially in the region above 5kHz.

Lets start with the DT880 Black Edition but this one has the grey pads on them as these are less ‘mid-bassy’.
These are the exact same pads as would be used on DT990 and already are softer than new pads as these are used ones.
It is interesting to note that the grey pads actually take a lot less pressure to compress than the black DT880 pads.

What can be seen above is that when the pads are compressed (green is normal pressure) that the amplitude of frequencies below 4kHz increase while above it they don’t. Effectively, seen from the area between 100Hz and 1kHz, where we base our perceived loudness on, not only the amplitude changes but compared to the not changing treble that treble is seemingly lower. The efficiency increases effectively for the lows and the mids.
It should be noted that any normal user would not use this fully compressed as your pinnae would be crushed and is uncomfortable as hell. One would probably start to replace already at the ‘blue’ stage. Your pinnae would already be touching the foam on the drivers.
A similar effect will be seen on the DT990.

Interestingly enough, because the pads are compressed the foam becomes ‘stiffer’, which would not necessarily be the case when foam decays, you also see the ‘pad bounce‘ frequency go up. Pad bounce is the resonance frequency of the pad itself (the foam in the pads) and at a certain frequency it absorbs energy resulting in a dip. The depth and frequency of the dip depends on the type of foam, surface and compression.
Above nearly 200Hz (red), near 100Hz (Blue) and near 60Hz (green). Yes… ignore the 50Hz wiggles.. it’s mains leaking in the mic capsule.

Below the DT1990 with original A pads (the Analytical/flat sounding ones)

Here the same effect is seen. Hardly any changes in the area above 4Hz but much more below 600Hz. These pads are firmer (less soft) than the grey ones and takes more pressure to compress. I reckon they will stay in shape much longer than the grey ones. Relatively the treble becomes lower while in reality the efficiency for lower frequencies becomes 10dB higher and between 1kHz and 4kHz 5dB higher.
Here too we see pad bounce shifting in frequency.

Below the HD560S.

Upto 4khz the tonality not change much but for higher frequencies there are some changes especially in the 6khz range. When the pads (who are quite firm and take a lot of force to compress) are compressed and the drivers are angled the effects above 5kHz will differ depending on your pinnae.
Overall the tonality changes are smaller than those of the Beyers. Pad bounce also shifts frequency here.

Below the HD650 (black screen with old pads). As these are older pads (more comfy than newer pads) the green line is not present. That is reserved for newer pads.
The used pads here are already 20 years old and are very easy to compress.

A tonal balance change is observed when the pads are compressed even more. The change with the HD650 however is more of a tonality ’tilt’ change.
Yes, it gets ‘darker’ sounding over time but not as extreme as the Beyerdynamics.

Below the Philips Fidelio X2HR. It should be noted that this headphone is modified. It has the bass boost lowered and the treble peak lowered using a filter.
These pads are quite thick and take a lot of force to compress them about 7mm.

The tonal balance also changes but more similar in effect than the Beyerdynamics (below 1kHz). Overtime the headphone thus becomes a but less ‘clear’ sounding. Pad bounce hardly changes (190Hz) with these stiff pads.

below the AKG K702. I tried to maintain the angling of the pads (relatively) but of course the angle gets smaller when the depth changes. These pads are thick and firm so take a lot of force to compress. Didn’t test the memory foam pads (should have in hindsight) which compress much easier.

There is something interesting going on. The efficiency above does not change much. Not more lows when compressing but instead lows get relatively softer.
The resonances I see clearly shift due to the changes in driver distance. These peaks will thus be lower when measured with a HATS as the reflection surface isn’t flat in reality.

Below the most interesting one. The Hifiman Edition XX. I have nor reason to believe other similar looking models will behave much differently.

No increase of efficiency nor tonality changes. Well.. in the clarity range (1-3kHz) the tonality changes very little. It becomes a bit clearer sounding as pads compress. 12mm compression is a LOT though. The same thing as with the K702 happens in the upper treble range. The resonance shifts a bit upwards because of the driver distance and air volume changing. This peak will also be pinna dependent.

Of course one can also go in the other direction when pads don’t have enough depth. One can put some paracord, rope or other materials under the pads thereby lifting the pads essentially. The effect is not compensating for older foam though as the rope or felt does not have the same acoustical properties of the foam but the ear-driver distance does change. Also one can experiment with only stuffing some rope/material under the back side of the pads and thereby angling the pads somewhat. This too will lead to tonal balance differences.

There were also popular mods where paracord rope was stuffed under pads and made measurements of that too.
Below the Shure SRH1440 where the owner had included the paracord and was interested to see what that did.
You can see the paracord under the pads which pushes the pads outward (but doesn’t absorb low frequencies which pads do)

Below you can see the effect of this paracord compared to the normal situations. In this particular case applying the rope also makes the headphone a little less loud. The opposite can be seen in the plots above.
The plot below has the volume difference compensated (traces overlaid at 400Hz) without rope, with rope

post separation

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